- The word hidayah is derived from the Arabic verb hada هدى which means to guide, to direct, to show the way and so on.
- Hidayah, which is verbal noun form, means a direction, a path, a way and so on.
- Hidayah linguistically refers to any guidance, direction, way and method, as long as it ensures person to reach his destination or attain his objective, though this destination or objective is against the syari`ah of Allah (s.w.t). refer : (surah Al-Ghafir 40:29)
-Hidayah conceptually refers to the following meanings :
i) The only way that ensures a person to achieve the pleasure and closure to Allah (s.w.t). ( mardatullah wa al-taqaarub ilaihi)
ii) A way that ensures a person to achieve tranquility, satisfaction, good feeling, success and meaningful life in this world and hereafter. (al-hayah al-tayyibah)
iii) The only system by which human kind is able to function and to carry out the duties of khilafah (vicegerent) and ibadah.
a) Surah Al-sajadah 32:24
-Hidayah refers to systematic and organized group of principle, instruction and teachings which brought by the messenger on Allah (s.w.t) instruction directly.
b) Surah Al-A`raf 7:43
- Hidayah is the only system of life whose outcome and objective is not only for the life in this world but what is more important is for the life in hereafter.
c) Surah Al-Qasas 28:56
- Hidayah is the something that only Allah has the power of giving and preventing from receiving it. It is not something within the capacity of human being to do so. It is a gift (tawfiq) from Allah s.w.t.
d) Surah Taha 20:50
- According to al-mufassirin, the guidance referring to natural ability of every creation (living or non-living) of Allah (s.w.t) to behave to act in accordance to the way necessary and important for their well being.
Stages of creation :
Takhliq : Allah brings from non-existence into existence.
Taswiyah : Allah give form ideally to its creation.
Taqdir : Allah assigned a role to created things (role & function)
Hidayah : Allah shows the way (guidance) to its existence.
LEVELS OF HIDAYAH
A) Guidance of Natural Inspiration (Hidayah Al-Ilham al-Fitri)
- Most of the human activities and deeds in this life are motivated, inspired directed and guided by the needs of human nature (al-Fitrah), and it appears in two form as follow :
i) Primary needs of human nature ( basic necessity such as food, cloth, shelter etc.)
ii) Secondary need of human nature (His desire to fulfill the requirements of his self-esteem, such as appreciation, recognition acknowledgement, wealth etc)
The prophet said: The best one in the eyes of Allah among human being is the most useful one among them. So human effort and struggle are also motivated and directed by his wish to fulfill the needs and requirement of his self-esteem.
Therefore in Islam, the fulfillment of the needs of fitrah, is necessity because the urge of fitrah is one form of guidance and direction (al-hidayah) provided by Allah (s.w.t) for human being. (refer : Surah Al-Imran 3:14)
B) Guidance of Feeling and Sense (Hidayah Al-Hawwas)
-Human being needs this level of guidance because :
i) To help us in controlling ourselves when we are responding to the urge and the pleasure of human nature which is embodied and contained in hidayah of natural inspiration.
ii) Hidayah al-hawwas plays the role as the manifestion, indication and the sign of the needs of human nature (al-fitrah).
C) Guidance of Intellect ( Hidayah al-`Aql)
The level of hidayah al-`aql is needed to control ourselves when we are responding to Hidayah al-Hawwas. The mind here refers to the faculty of intellectual and the power of reason. The use of reason only limited to the cases that are not clearly stated in the al-Qu`ran of its hukum. Howewer, if there is provision of its hukum in the aq-Qu`ran, the muslim must refer to directly, without the use of reason.
D) The Guidance of Religion ( Hidayah Al-Din)
The highest level of Guidance because it is coming in the form of direct and specific injunction and provision of Al-Qu`ran and al-Sunnah. Hidayah al-Din is needed to control our wisdom and intellect in examining the status of our activities whether it is right or wrong. This is due to human intellect is still limited. Therefore, in cases and matters which is beyond the capabilities of human being, Allah (s.w.t) sends a revelation explaining and providing solution for these matters in detail and specific (hidayah).(6:71,76:2-3,90:8-10,16:78)
AL-QURAN : the book of guidance
The subject of Basic Themes of Al-Quran meant to inculcate within us the belief and conviction in the al-Quran as the only book of Guidance for mankind. In order to ensure our actual confidence in al-Quran as the book revealed by Allah (s.w.t), it is necessary for us to understand and appreciate the miracles of al-Quran.
Al-Quran is the book guidance to our prophet Muhamad s.a.w. Al-Quran revealed down to messenger by Allah through gabriel. It sent in step to prophet Muhamad s.a.w. It is a main source of reference for Islam. Prophet said "I inherited to you two matter you will not abstracted in your life, it is Al-Quran and his Sunnah". Allah also stated in Al-Quran ( Surah Al-Baqarah 1:2) " This is the Book (Al-Quran). in it is guidance sure, without doubt to those who fear Allah ".
Prerequisite for divine guidance (Al-Hidayah)
A) Al-Iman (belief)
To have actual conviction (haq al-yaqin) in the teaching of Allah and islam as the only effective way and system of life for humankind.
Haq al-yaqin=conviction which is not requiring either observation (‘ain al-yaqin) @ rationalization (‘Ilm al-yaqin).
(refer : Surah Al-`Araf 7:158)
- In the ayah, Allah (s.w.t) mentions that is order to obtain hidayah, a person should believe in Allah (s.w.t) and His messenger (s.a.w) which implies belief (iman or haqq al-yaqin) in Allah (s.w.t) teachings as the only effective way and system of life ensures the actual well-being, goodness and safety to humankind.
B) Islam ( Total Submission)
-Islam is total submission to Allah`s Will #. It (Islam) is the manifestation and indication of iman. (refer : Surah Al-Imran 3:20). In this Ayah states that the condition and the prerequisite for being on the right path of Allah (s.w.t) is a submission to His Will.
The total submission to Allah’s will contained in:
1. Allah’s injuctions refer to instruction and prohibition of the syari’ah.
2. Allah’s decision refers to his qada’ and qadar.
3. His creation refers to the law of nature created by Allah.
-is higher level of Islam and can be categorized into 2 levels
I. Al-‘adalah (justice)-level which we must have to attain at least in our submission to Allah.
II. Ihsan is a level higher that what we must attain (required to attain)
(Refer : Surah Al-Nahl 16:90) ( Refer : Surah Al-Luqman 31: 1-3)
D) `Amal Salih
- `Amal salih is an activity and deed which in general recognized as ibadah that is resulted in receiving ajr (reward) from Allah (s.w.t), and done for achieving pleasure and closure of Allah s.w.t . There are preconditions to be fulfilled:
i)Permisible deeds-not against specific & direct injunction of Al-Quran & sunnah.
ii)Beneficial deeds-useful & important for developing 1 or > of the 5 aspects of human being (objectives of syari’ah); (faith,emotion,intellect,physique & means(money))
iii) Sincerity of Intention. ( refer Surah Al-Nahl 16 : 90) -> doing something for the sake of Allah (s.w.t).
iv) The Performance of Ibadah al-Khassah. -> What ever activities and deeds we are doing are not considered as amal salih unless they are done along with Ibadah al-Khassah as the pillars of Islam as comprehensive way of life.
v) Fulfilling the ethical values and Islamic virtues. E.g punctuality, hardworking, politeness,friendliness,helpfulness,patience. (10:9)
-The act of returning to the way of Allah (s.w.t) repeatedly and it is an evitable process for a Muslim in his effort to be remaining on the right path of Allah (s.w.t) in order to achieve the pleasure of Him (s.w.t). In fact, both inabah and tawbah are referring to the same thing.
Tawbah comprises three stages:
I. The realisationof the seriousness of the sin.
II. The feeling of regret of the sin done.
III. The resolution to leave/abstain from the sin.
Inabah+another 2 stages;
IV. A process of abstaining from sin committed.
V. Replacing it with good deed opposite to it.
( refer Surah Al-Furqan 25:70) (Surah Ra`d 13:27)
- A Muslim is required as a preconditioned of the right path of Allah (s.w.t) to exert his utmost effort and to work all out in whatever activities he is undertaking. With regards to the relationship between jihad and receiving hidayah from Allah (s.w.t) refer to Surah Al-Ankabut 29:69)
MANIFESTION OF MISGUIDANCE
A) Al-Kufr (Disbelief)
- The total and absolute distrust in Allah (s.w.t) and His teachings as the only effective way of life. It is the most obvious deviating way which taking a person very far from the right path of Allah (s.w.t). ( refer : Surah Al-Nisa`)
B) Al-Zulm ( Injustice)
- Al-Zulm comprises all practice where a person fails to give something or someone its or his due or right (that supposed to give). The right refers to anything necessary and needed by someone/something to enable him to function well and effectively based on the nature of his work.(refer Surah Al-Saff 61:7)
C) Al-Fisq (Disobedience)
-refers to a person who is straying from the right path and keeps on disobeying Allah (s.w.t)
- A fasiq person is the one who used to commit sin and doing mistake to the extent that it becomes for him a habit a culture and enjoyable activities, where he feels nothing wrong at all with what he is involving in ( refer Surah 9:80)
D) Israf (Excessiveness)
- The act of doing something lawful or fulfilling a responsibility beyond its appropriate limit in one aspect which is resulted in negative effect or deficiency in another, without necessity ( Refer Surah Al-Ghafir 40:28)
A person who used to be excessive especially in his expenditure and in his life style in general usually it is for the purpose of showing off as been mentioned by the prophet (s.a.w)
“Eat, donate and be dressed (as like as you wish) provided it is not done excessively and not for showing off.”
-Those who are doing things for the purpose of showing off and not because of necessity usually need to spend more than their actual ability which requires them to be untruthful ones who keep on trying to deceive the others in order to ensure the enough means to enable them to lead that excessive life.
E) Al-Nifaq ( Hypocrisy)
- Al-Nifaq originally refers to a quality of non Muslims who were pretending as Muslims and living together with them in Madinah
-worse than non-muslim (al-kuffār)
-lack of a strong principle & clear stance due to strong concern of getting benefit and profit as much as possible from both sides.
( Refer Surah Al-Baqarah 2:14-16)
INDICATION OF RECEIVING GUIDANCE (HIDAYAH)
A) Experiencing satisfaction and excitement.
- Experiencing a state of enjoyment, pleasure, satisfaction, and enthusiasm, in observing and implementing the teaching of Islam (refer Surah Al-An`am 6:125)
B) Experiencing Calmness and Serenity
- Experiencing a state of actual tranquility and serenity ( refer Surah Al-Baqarah 2:38). from this ayah, we can see that those who have acquired hidayah from Allah (s.w.t) will be free from al-khauf and al-huzn.
-Al-khauf is a feeling of fear or worry, uncertainly, and anxiety about what is going to happen to him.
-Al-huzn is the feeling of sadness, regret, disappointment, frustration, and dissatisfaction on something which has happened already. The both states of feeling create a person a feeling of depression, low spirit, will be removed from the heart of those who have been bestowed hidayah (guidance) by Allah (s.w.t)
C) Feeling of hatred towards sinful acts.
- Perceiving ma`siah as something shameful and hateful ( refer Surah Al-Naml 27:24)
shared by a brother in Islam.